DISPLAYING GRAPHICS IN A QUIZ
It is possible to display graphic images on the computer screen while taking a computer quiz.

Bad news first. On a personal computer quiz these images must be in the .BMP image format. They can only be in black and white. They can be up to 5 X 4 inches in size. They can only be created on VGA, SVGA, or MCGA computer monitors or any other monitor that can display screen #11.

Now the good news. While you must have VGA video or better when you create your graphics or compile a quiz, high resolution images can be displayed on VGA, SVGA, MCGA, or Hercules video or a medium resolution image of the same graphic can be displayed on a CGA or EGA video. When the quiz file is read from your hard drive the images will appear almost instantly, in about 1/3 of a second. You may compile up to 40 images into one quiz. Each image uses only 35,000 bytes of memory. You may use the Windows Paintbrush utility to create your images.

On an HTML internet quiz you can, of course, use .GIF .JPG or even specify one additional graphic format. They can be any size and be in color. You can compile an HTML internet quiz on a computer with any video standard.

CREATING YOUR IMAGES
On an HTML internet quiz you may use any program that can create or manipulate .GIF or .JPG files.

For a personal computer quiz graphics can be created by using the Windows Paintbrush utility program. You access this program by first starting Windows, then click on the ACCESSORIES menu icon in PROGRAM MANAGER, now click on the PAINTBRUSH icon.

The image MUST be created using Paintbrush's black & white mode. You MAY NOT create images using the color mode but you only choose the colors black & white. Images may be up to 5 X 4 inches in size. Smaller images will not display faster or require less memory. If your image is larger that 5 X 4 inches only the 5 X 4 inch center of the image will be displayed.

To set the proper mode and size for your image, on the tool bar at the top of the Paintbrush screen click on OPTIONS then click on IMAGE ATTRIBUTES. Set WIDTH to 5.0 and HEIGHT to 4.0. Set UNITS to IN and COLORS to BLACK & WHITE. Now any image that you can create can be displayed by Harris Test.

When Harris Test compiles your quiz it will compile both a high resolution image (the same as the original Paintbrush image) and a medium resolution copy of the same image. When you take a quiz the program will determine the video capabilities of the computer it is running on and will display a high rez. image on VGA, SVGA, MCGA, or Hercules monitors or a medium rez. image on a CGA or EGA monitor. A medium rez. image has the same number of horizontal dots as a high rez. image but only half the vertical lines. This program expects your image to be composed of black lines on a white background. In a medium rez. image thin horizontal black lines will become thicker and thin horizontal white lines will have a tendency to disappear, small white details (like letters) will become blobs. Medium rez. images will also be vertically elongated, circles will become ovals and squares will become rectangles.

Here are some tips. From the Windows mouse control panel set your movement sensitivity as low as possible. Back in Paintbrush, from the tool bar click on VIEW and turn on CURSOR POSITION, it will help you get your lines straight and your intervals even. From VIEW use ZOOM IN to do micro-editing of your images. After creating a complicated outline, maps, anatomical drawings, etc., save the outline before you label the parts, then save the labeled image using a different name. Now you can load the original image and add different labels without having to erase the old labels.

For really good looking images, copy a paper drawing onto a clear overhead transparancy sheet, you may have to enlarge or reduce the paper image first to get the correct size. Now cut out a square containing the image and after loading Paintbrush tape it to your computer screen. Now use the mouse cursor on the screen to trace the image from behind the transparancy.

ALIEN .BMP IMAGES
Black and white .BMP images created by software other than the Windows Paintbrush utility will probably NOT be usable by Harris Test, however you may use Paintbrush to reformat these alien images so that they can be usable.

Load Paintbrush and use IMAGE ATTRIBUTES (see above) to set Paintbrush to the proper mode and size. Now near the top of the screen click on EDIT then PASTE FROM... to load the alien image into Paintbrush, this will reformat the image into the black and white Paintbrush mode, now the image that you can save will be usable by Harris Test.

You can also use this method to reformat a color .BMP image into a black and white image. If you do this all white pixels in the original image will stay white and all colored pixels will become black, so this will be of limited use.

Please note that you cannot just load Paintbrush and then load the alien image because Paintbrush will reformat itself to match the image, it's the image that you want to reformat.

LINKING IMAGES TO QUESTIONS
To link an image to a question simply type in the file name of the image, enclosed in square brackets, into the question. On a personal computer quiz the file name must end with the extension of .BMP, example [USMAP.BMP] or [CIRCUIT3.BMP]. You may link only one image to a question.

On an HTML internet quiz the file names of your graphics must end with either .GIF or .JPG (or you may specify one more), example [USMAP.GIF] or [CIRCUIT.JPG]. You may link as many images to one question as you wish. One question may have both personal computer (.BMP) and HTML (.GIF or .JPG) graphic links, if you are in one quiz type the graphic links for the other type will be ignored.

You may link the same image to as many questions as you wish. See figure 28. You may also link images to documents that may be in your quiz, see Documents.

After viewing the map choose the capitol of state #11. A} Topeka B} Li
ncoln C} St. Paul D} Madison E} Springfield [USMAP.BMP] [USMAP.GIF]



Figure 28. Question (as typed) linked to a graphic.
Note to Windows 95 users. This is a DOS based program and will NOT recognize filenames longer than 8 letters followed by an extension of not more than 3 letters.

On a personal computer quiz, when taking a quiz whenever a question linked to a graphic is displayed the function key area at the bottom of the screen will say "F3 = Graphic". Tell your students to look for this and to press F3 to view the image. On an HTML internet quiz the graphics will be displayed above the question.

DOCUMENT/GRAPHIC VIEWER
Whenever you are at the screen where you type in your questions or at the screen where you select them for use, you may hold down [CTRL] and press [F4] to load the "Document / Graphic Viewer". This feature will allow you to view your graphic .BMP images before you compile them into your quiz file. It will also allow you to set your PATH for your graphic files, this is VERY IMPORTANT! This program will not be able to locate your .BMP graphic files when compiling your quiz unless you set the PATH for them. See Viewer for a detailed description of this feature.

OTHER STUFF
The total number of graphics in one quiz cannot exceed 40. This is the total number of graphics linked to your questions AND (see Graphics in Documents) linked to your documents.

When the personal computer quiz is compiled this program will use the saved PATH to go find your .BMP graphics and compile a copy of each linked graphic into the quiz file. Only one copy of each graphic is compiled into the quiz no matter how many questions (or documents) are linked to that graphic. Therefore each graphic counts as only 1 toward your maximum of 40 per quiz no matter how many times it is linked to multiple questions or documents in the same quiz. This means that when you copy a quiz to another disk that the graphics also go along, you do not have to copy them. Since the graphics are included in the quiz this adds to the file size of the quiz, they can get very large, very quickly. Also every quiz that has a question linked to the same graphic has a copy of that graphic in it, vast disk space is being used up. Finally, once a quiz is made, any included graphics cannot be changed unless you remake the quiz. Changing the original graphic will not make the change on a copy of the same graphic already in a quiz.

On an HTML internet quiz only the graphic LINK is compiled into the HTML file. After the quiz is compiled the program will print out a list of all the graphic files that must uploaded to your website.


DOCUMENTS IN TESTS AND QUIZZES
It is possible to print documents on a test or to view documents on the computer screen while taking a quiz.

These documents could give a lesson and after being read the student could then answer questions about the lesson.

The document could also be a scenario, a sample business proposal, a crime scene, medical symtoms /history, a technical problem with multiple components, etc. After the document is read you can ask questions that determine how well the student understood the problem, what methods he would use to solve the problem, and what the solution would be.

On a test, before the questions linked to it are printed, the document will be printed. A document will always start a new page.

On a personal computer quiz the document will be displayed before the questions that are linked to it are asked. After paging through and reading a document you may clear it and the first question related to the document will appear. If permitted, you may recall a document when you are answering the questions.

On an HTML internet quiz the document will be printed above the questions linked to it are asked.

So, how do you accomplish this? First of all you must write the document. Since this document can be of any length, and you probably already have a word processing program that is better and more familiar to you than any I could include with this program, you must use your own word processing program to write your documents.

In order for "Harris Test" to be able to read documents prepared by any word processing program (there are thousands) there must be a few rules...

 [ALWAYS]
 CASE STUDY #52B
    A thriving men's clothing store is in a well maintained inclosed mall
 location in a middle class suburban area within a class 5 fire protection
 district. The nearest fire station is 1.75 miles distant.
     The store and mall are of masonary construction, built in 1982 and
 conforms to all fire codes. The mall is of two stories and the store is on 
 the second story. The nearest location selling food prepared on site is 82
 feet away on the same floor.
     There has been no reported case of arson within a five mile radius of
 the mall within the last 5 years. No reported case of civil disturbance
 within 25 years.
     Store and mall are owned by different corporations. Both are medium to
 large corporations, well financed, low debt, with financial ratings of AA
 or better.
 [END]
Sample document prepared on a word processor. File name CASE52B.TXT
Figure 29.
1. Plain text only! Your WP program may be able to to underline, change fonts,use subscripts and other non-keyboard characters etc., "Harris Test" cannot. Plus, the invisible control characters that would be embedded in your text to achieve these results will cause unpredictable things to happen when your document is being read by "Harris Test".

2. Your documents must be saved in as simple a format as possible. If your WP program can save your document in a .TXT, TEXT, or ASCII format please use it. When you save your document you must use a filename that ends in a .DOC or .TXT extension. NOTE to Windows 95 users. This is a DOS based program and will not recognize filenames longer than 8 letters followed by an extension of not more than 3 letters.

3. No tabs. Use multiple spaces instead.

4. End each paragraph (and symbol) by pressing [ENTER]. Do not end each line by pressing [ENTER] unless you are entering a chart or table of figures.

5. Your document must begin with either of these symbols [ONCE] or [ALWAYS], not both. Include the square brackets, no spaces. In a quiz, if your document begins with [ONCE] then it may not be viewed again after it has been cleared. If it begins with [ALWAYS] then you may redisplay it whenever a question linked to it is being answered. On a printed test or HTML internet quiz it makes no difference which symbol you use to begin your document.

6. On a printed test, if a line of your document consists of only this symbol [PAGE] the next line will start a new page. The [PAGE] symbol is ignored on computer quizzes.

7. Your document must end with this symbol [END]

8. When "Harris Test" displays your document, it will be reformatted to 59 characters per line and 42 to 57 lines per page (depending on the text lines per page) on a printed test, or 59 characters per line with 19 lines per page on a personal computer quiz. On an HTML internet quiz your document will be displayed the width of the screen and the lines of the document will be continious.

Now that you have written and saved your documents it is time to write and link questions to them. Exit your word processor and load "Harris Test".

DOCUMENT/GRAPHIC VIEWER
Before you actually link questions to your documents you will probably want to see how the documents will look when displayed by "Harris Test". From the screen where you type in your questions, or from screen where you select questions for use, hold down [CTRL] and press [F4]. Enter the filename of the document you wish to view (it will already be entered if the displayed question is already linked). Now enter the PATH to the directory that the document is in.

When you save a document from your word processor, it will usually be saved in the same directory that the WP program is in. For example the Windows application, "Write" will usually save documents in the C:\WINDOWS directory. To load a document "Harris Test" must know where it is, this is the document's PATH. If you don't know what a directory is, or how to find the PATH to the one you want, please ask for help from someone who is a little more proficient with computers.

So, what PATH should you use? Depends. If only one person is using this program you can use any PATH you want. If you are using the Windows utilities "Write" and "Paintbrush" to create your documents and graphics then you may want to use the C:\WINDOWS path. If you don't want to mix the files you are using for Harris Test with your other files you may want to use the C:\TESTER path. If many people are using this program on one computer then you will probably want to use the same path that is created for each question list. For the question list PHYSICS use the path C:\TESTER\PHYSICS for the question list ENGLIT use the path C:\TESTER\ENGLIT. Of course your word processing program will have to place your documents in the directory at the proper PATH.

Note: The "question list" directory is created when you create your question list. Therefore if you want to store your documents and graphics there you may want to write at least one question in your question list first.

Once you have entered the PATH for your documents press [F1] to save it. Now you are home free, whenever you use "Text Viewer" again it will look up your PATH for you. Note; if you have more than one question list on a disk then you will have to save the PATH for each course even if it is the same PATH, this also allows different question lists to have different PATHs.


WARNING WARNING WARNING WARNING

When "Harris Test" makes your quiz, it will need the correct PATH you saved using the "Document Viewer" to find your documents. If you did not enter the correct PATH, or did not save it, "Harris Test" cannot make the quiz.

LINKING QUESTIONS TO A DOCUMENT
To link a particular question to a document all you have to do is to enter the filename into the question in square brackets, ie. [OHMS4.TXT]. See figure 30. You may link only one document to a question. You may link as many questions to the same document as you wish, just remember that every question that you wish to link must have the filename in it.

In case study 52B estimate the probability that this store will be a total
loss due to fire in the next 12 months. A} Less than 1% B} 1% to 3% C} 3%
to 5% D} 5% to 10% E} 10% to 20%   [CASE52B.TXT]


In case study 52B which of the following would be the most likely cause of
 a major fire? A} Arson by 3rd party B} Insurance fraud C} On premise acci
dent D} Fire spread from adjoining structure E} Other  [CASE52B.TXT]


Figure 30. 2 Sample questions as entered linked to text in figure 29.
You may link either the survey or graded types of question to a document and all the kinds of questions can be linked, ie. multiple choice, fill in the blank, essay, or cross match.

When taking a personal computer quiz, whenever a question linked to a document is displayed (and the document may be redisplayed) the function key area at the bottom of the screen will say "F4 = View text". Tell your students to look for this and to press [F4] if they want to redisplay the document.

LINKING DOCUMENTS TO DOCUMENTS IN A QUIZ
NOTE! This feature is implimented in HTML internet quizzes and personal computer quizzes, however on an HTML interne t quiz if you leave the main quiz page (the one with the questions) to view a linked sub-document all the answers on your quiz page will have been erased when you return. Note: on an HTML quiz a main document is displayed on the main quiz page and will not have this problem.

Why would you want to link another document to a document, why not just

include the information in the original document? The answer; organization and file size.

Let us assume that your document presents a problem that requires a grid or list of data to solve it, and that further, problems in other documents will also require this information. Well rather than add this data to each document it would be better to place the data in a separate document and then just link it to the others. If you want to be really nasty, link many data documents to the main document and see if your student will look up the correct one.

If you are making a computer textbook you may want to use linked documents as a "side bar" to offer additional information on the subject being discussed.

Sub-documents may be linked to additional sub-documents (and graphics) which in turn can be linked to additional sub-documents. You may go down as far as 20 levels.

Any document may be linked to any other document in the same quiz. You may even, for example, link a document 6 levels down back to a document in the same chain, say level 2, which will cause the chain to loop on itself. This is, however, a BAD idea since there is then no logical end to the chain and once you try to go beyond level 20 the program will die. To go up the chain press [ESC] to return to the previous document.

Since the point of sub-documents is that they may be called many times you must start each one with the symbol [ALWAYS], do not use [ONCE]. They must of course end with the symbol [END].

To actually link a document to another simply enter the filename of the second document into the first in square brackets, ie. [DOCUMENT1.TXT] or [OREDATA.DOC]. See figure 31. When your first document is displayed while taking a personal computer quiz, the file names of the sub-documents will be replaced by the name of the function key you must press to display the sub-document and the word "DOCUMENT". See figure 31. On an HTML quiz only the word "DOCUMENT" will form the link.

On a personal computer quiz, while you may link many sub-documents to a document (or even the same sub-document several times) only 12 links may be displayed per document page (19 lines of 59 characters each), don't put more than 12 links too close together. As each page of your document is displayed, the links on that page will be assigned to the function keys [F1] to [F12], therefore [F1] will display one document or graphic when page 3 of your document is displayed and a totally different text or image when page 4 is displayed. You may place as many links as you wish to the same document or graphic into one document as long as you do not exceed 20 different documents or 40 different graphics in one quiz.

DISPLAYING GRAPHICS WHILE VIEWING A DOCUMENT IN A QUIZ
To link a graphic image to a document simply include the file name of the graphic into your document. Include the square brackets. See figure 31. The graphic files must be in the disk directory at the same PATH as your document files when you make your personal computer quiz, on an HTML internet quiz your graphic files can be anywhere.

 [ALWAYS]
    In this image [USMAP.BMP] you can see that the Mississippi River forms
 the border of several states. From its source in Minnesota it runs
 generally south to its mouth in Louisiana and empties into the Gulf of
 Mexico. This list [MISSELEV.TXT] shows the elevation above sea level of
 the Mississippi at several key points. The small difference in elevation
 between the source and the mouth compared with its long overall length is
 responsible for the slow flow rate of the river. This slow flow rate allows 
 the river to carry large amounts of sediment to create one of the worlds
 great river deltas at its mouth, as is apparent in this image [MDELTA.BMP].
 [END]
Document with sub-document and graphic links as entered.
NOTE; use .GIF or .JPG graphics on an HTML internet quiz.
    In this image [F1 = GRAPHIC] you can see that the Mississippi 
 River forms the border of several states. From its source in
 Minnesota it runs generally south to its mouth in Louisiana and
 empties into the Gulf of Mexico. This list [F2 =DOCUMENT] shows
 the elevation above sea level of the Mississippi at several key
 points. The small difference in elevation between the source and
 the mouth compared with its long overall length is responsible
 for the slow flow rate of the river. This slow flow rate allows
 the river to carry large amounts of sediment to create one of
 the worlds great river deltas at its mouth, as is apparent in
 this image [F3 = GRAPHIC].
Document with sub-document and graphic links as displayed.

Note; in an HTML quiz a document link will only say DOCUMENT,
and a graphic link will be replaced by the actual graphic.
Figure 31.

When your document is displayed while taking your personal computer quiz, the file names of the graphic images will be replaced by the name of the function key you must press to display the image and the word "GRAPHIC". See figure 31. On an HTML internet quiz the actual graphic image will replace the link, you may want to place your graphic links only between paragraphs or at the beginning or end of your documents.

While you may link up to 40 graphics to any one quiz, and therefore up to 40 to any document in a quiz, only 12 links may be displayed per document page (19 lines of 59 characters each), don't put more than 12 links too close together. As each page of your document is displayed, the links on that page will be assigned to the function keys [F1] to [F12], therefore [F1] will display one document or graphic when page 3 of your document is displayed and a totally different text or image when page 4 is displayed. You may place as many links as you wish to the same document or graphic into one document. No matter how many times a graphic is linked to (and therefore can be viewed from) one document, or even multiple documents and multiple questions, only one copy of the graphic will actually be compiled into the quiz file.

PRINT QUESTIONS IN RANDOM ORDER
If you choose to "Print questions in random order" when documents are linked to questions, all the questions will be randomized and then all questions linked to each document will be grouped together. For example, if you had a quiz or test that contained 4 documents and each document had 3 questions linked to it, and 5 questions that are not linked to any document, and you chose to randomize the questions, the order that the questions are shown could be like this....


Questions 1,3,2 linked to document 3
Unlinked questions 4 & 1            
Questions 3,1,2 linked to document 1
Questions 2,1,3 linked to document 4
Unlinked question 5                 
Questions 3,2,1 linked to document 2
Unlinked question 3 & 2             
OTHER THINGS TO PONDER
Only 20 documents can be linked to any one quiz or test.

When a test or quiz (personal computer or HTML internet) is made, this program will use the saved PATH to go find your linked documents and compile a copy of each linked document into the quiz file, only one copy of each document is compiled into the quiz file no matter how many questions are linked to that document. (NOTE; on a HTML internet quiz only the main documents are compiled into the quiz file, all sub-documents are compiled into separate HTML pages. After the compiling is done the program will print out a list of all the .HTM files that you must upload to your website.) This means that when you copy a quiz to another disk that the documents also go along, you do not have to copy them. Since the documents are included in the quiz this adds to the file size of the quiz, they can get very large, very quickly. Also every quiz that has a question linked to the same document has a copy of that document in it, vast disk space is being used up. Finally, once a quiz is made, any included documents cannot be changed unless you remake the quiz. Changing the original document on your word processor will not also make the change on a copy of the same document already in a quiz.

Do not use the "per question" timer if a quiz has linked documents to read, using the "per quiz" timer is all right, just remember that the timer is running while the documents are being viewed.


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